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Osaka University Humanities and Social Sciences Series

Why Is Public Expenditure on Education in Japan Low?

Re-examining the Public Function of Education

在庫あり
Wataru Nakazawa (中澤渉) 著
菊変判 284ページ 並製
定価4200円+税
ISBN978-4-87259-547-5 C3036
奥付の初版発行年月:2016年06月

内容紹介
目次
著者略歴

内容紹介

The analysis of this book reveals that there is a low recognition of publicness in education among the people of Japan. Thus, paying as much as possible for one’s children becomes a natural part of parental affection, and educational achievements are considered to be of private benefit, having been obtained through individual effort.
. . .
There are many people who share in not knowing what function school education serves, and these people probably do not feel very strongly that education must be maintained by investing public expenditure in it.

2014年度サントリー学芸賞受賞作『なぜ日本の公教育費は少ないのか-教育の公的役割を問いなおす』(勁草書房、2014年)の待望の英語翻訳版刊行。日本における教育機会不平等の拡大や少子化の原因の一つとも言える教育費の私的負担の重さについて、その政策の歴史と現状、国際比較を通して読み解き、どうすれば公教育費を増やせるかについて考える。

(原書名)『なぜ日本の公教育費は少ないのか-教育の公的役割を問いなおす』(勁草書房、2014年) 

目次

Contents

Acknowledgements
Abbreviations

INTRODUCTION

Where the Problem Lies 1
1. Issues Surrounding Obstructed Education Spending
(1) Risks and Social Security in a Society with an Aging Population and a Declining Birth Rate
(2) Unequal Education Opportunity in a Society with a Widening Educational Disparity
(3) Small Public Spending on Education and People’s Attitude Reflecting this Fact
(4) Issue of National Burden
2. Can We Increase Public Spending on Education?

PART I
PEOPLE’S ATTITUDE AND THE STATE OF POLICY REGARDING EDUCATION SPENDING

CHAPTER 1
Reconsidering the Social Role of Education

1. Society where Education Takes Root
2. Modernization and Education: A Sociological Look at School Education
(1) Function of School Education in a Modern Society
(2) School Education in the Emerging Society in America
(3) American-Style Liberalism and the Education Philosophy
(4) School Systems and the Societal Role of Education
3. Reconsidering the Social Function of Education
(1) Equalization and Human Resource Allocation
(2) Japanese People’s Sense of Injustice as regards Educational Attainment
(3) Equality Debates and Public Education that Accounts for Individual Potential
(4) The Meaning of the Government’s Involvement in Education

CHAPTER 2
The State/Government and Education

1. Education from the Perspective of the Government
(1) The Role of the Government in Education from the Perspective of Economics
(2) Introduction of Quasi-Market Reform
2. Establishment of Modern States and Development of Education Systems
(1) State and Bureaucracy
(2) Bureaucratization of the Education System
(3) Introduction of the Modern Education System in Japan
3. Development of the State Mechanism and Its Spread in the World
(1) Spread of Institutional Isomorphism and the Modern Education System
(2) State and Tax
(3) Under Neoliberalization

CHAPTER 3
Relationship between Education and Social Security/Welfare

1. Education as Social Policy
(1) The Difference in the Scope of Social Policy
(2) Who Receives More Benefit from Education?
(3) The Ways of Positioning Public Education Expenditure and their Problems
2. Education Policy in Japan and the Welfare System behind It
(1) Establishment of a Japanese-Style Welfare System
(2) Welfare Systems that Rely on the Private Sector
(3) Beneficiaries of Social Security
3. Globalized World and Social Policies
(1) Economy that Goes beyond the Framework of the State
(2) Social Exclusion and Inclusion
4. The Relationship between Education System and Social Security/Welfare System from the Perspective of International Comparison
(1) Complementarity of the Systems
(2) Education under Social Policies
(3) Position of Education Policy in the Overall Public Expenditure
(4) Distance between Education and Each Policy Area and the Classification of Country Based on Distance

CHAPTER 4
The Structure of Japanese People’s Attitude toward Education and Social Policies from the Perspective of International Comparison

1. Attitude toward Welfare Policy and Social Security
(1) Rationale for Focusing on the Attitude
(2) Competing Interests for Public Spending on Education
(3) The Low Level of Trust in the Government among the Japanese
2. Determinants of Social Policy
(1) Relationship between the Welfare Regime and Attitude
(2) Relationship between Personal Attributes and Attitude
3. International Comparative Analysis
(1) The Data Used and Angle of Analysis
(2) Relationship between the Attitude that Government Expenditure Should Be Cut and the Attitude that the Government Should Cover the Cost More
(3) Basic Tendency with Attitude Responses
(4) Logistic Regression Analysis to Predict the Attitude toward Government Expenditure
(5) Logistic Regression Analysis to Predict the Attitude toward Government Responsibilities
(6) Public Education to Increase Support for Public Spending on Education

PART II
WHY HAS THE PUBLIC BURDEN OF EDUCATION NOT INCREASED?

CHAPTER 5
Public Finance and Education in Japan

1. Causes of Government Deficit Financing
(1) Sociology of Fiscal Crisis
(2) Causes of Fiscal Deficit
2. Public Finance and Budgets
(1) Idiosyncrasies of Public-Finance Activities in Japan
(2) Mechanism of Budget Compilation
(3) Composition of Education-Related and Science and Technology Promotion
Expenditure and Child Learning Costs
3. Balance between Burden and Benefit
(1) Sociology of Public Finance
(2) Public Works that Utilize Fiscal Investment and Loans
(3) Considering the Balance between Tax Burden and Received Benefit

CHAPTER 6
Post-War History of Rising Education Costs

1. Foundation of Post-war Democratic Education System and Burden of Education Costs
(1) The Gap between the Center and the Local Areas
(2) Tuition Fee Rises Directly after the War
2. Education Costs from the High Economic Growth Period to the Stable Economic Growth Period
(1) Student Movements and the Rise in School Costs
(2) Introduction of Beneficiary-Pays Principle and Increase of National University Tuition Fees
3. Institutionalization of the Heavy Share of Education Cost Burden
(1) Soaring Education Costs Before and After the Introduction of Subsidies for Private Schools
(2) Increase of Education Cost Burden on Families during a Restructuring of Public Finance
(3) Trend of Education Cost Burden from 1990s Onward

CHAPTER 7
Battleground Issues on Education Costs

1. Shifting of Education Cost Burden to Self-Responsibility
(1) Formation of Mistrust toward the Government
(2) Discontent toward Welfare Recipients
(3) Expectations of Individual Burdens by Parents
2. Campaign Pledges and Manifestos
(1) The Start of the Manifesto Election
(2) Historical Transitions of Battleground Issues in Elections
(3) Election Results and Popular Will in Post-war Japan
3. The People’s Verdict on the Education Policies Put Forward by the DPJ
(1) Data and Variables Used
(2) Balance between Public Service and the Public Burden
(3) Concerning Support for the DPJ Policies

CHAPTER 8
Realization of Policies and Stance toward Political Parties

1. The Critical Gaze on “Bureaucracy”
(1) Parliamentary Cabinet System and Enforcement of Policy
(2) Dysfunctions of Bureaucracy and Criticism Directed at Public Servants
(3) Affinity between Criticisms toward Bureaucracy and Neoliberalism
2. Reflection of Popular Will in Indirect Democracy
(1) Toward a Political Power Assertive on Burden Increase
(2) Political Party Support and Voting Behavior
3. Relationship between Political Party Support and Attitudes on Policies
(1) Changes in Voting Behavior among Individuals
(2) Political Party Favorability Rating and Political Attitude
(3) Analysis of Panel Data
(4) What Should Be Done to Reflect the Popular Will?

EPILOGUE
The Responsibility to Publicly Support Education

1. Tolerating “Failure”
(1) Legacy of the DPJ Government
(2) Filling in the Gaps in Society
(3) Reconsidering the Structures of Democracy
2. Education and Publicness: the Public Burden of Education

References
Index 

著者略歴

Wataru Nakazawa (中澤渉)(ナカザワ ワタル)
About the Author
Wataru Nakazawa is an associate professor of sociology of education in the Graduate School of Human Sciences at Osaka University. He won the Suntory Prizes for Social Sciences and Humanities for this work in Japanese. His research focuses on sociology of education, social stratification and mobility, and quantitative methodology.

(上記内容は本書刊行時のものです。)